Phylogenetic systematics of the Milichiidae

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Summarized from Brake (2000)

The Milichiidae are a monophyletic family ( Click here for phylogenetic tree). Apomorphic characters for the Milichiidae are:

  • 3 lateroclinate orbital and 2 medioclinate frontal setae
  • a proclinate setula between supra-antennal seta and eye margin present
  • a pair of setulae present on the lunule
  • proboscis with 4 pseudotracheae
  • postgonites of male genitalia lost

The Milichiidae can be divided into 3 subfamilies: Phyllomyzinae, Madizinae, and Milichiinae. The Phyllomyzinae are the first to branch off. The Madizinae and Milichiinae are sister-groups. Apomorphies for the Madizinae + Milichiinae are:

  • posterior orbital seta medio-reclinate
  • postocellar setae parallel to slightly converging
  • basisternum large and V-shaped
  • phallapodemic sclerite fused with bases of pregonites and hypandrium
  • median part of hypandrium lost
  • ?secondary ovipositor (sternite 8 form two strips, ring of barbed spines between sternite 7 and 8, ovipositor short, supra-anal plate bare, cerci short)


The Phyllomyzinae consist of the genera Aldrichiomyza, Costalima, Microsimus, Neophyllomyza, Paramyia, Paramyioides, Phyllomyza, Stomosis, and Xenophyllomyza. This subfamily is characterized by the following apomorphies:

  • the two medial pseudotracheae are converging at the tips
  • proepimeral seta present
  • first tarsomere of hind leg with a row of setae posteroventrally
  • ring of barbed spines between segments 7 and 8 in females lost


The Madizinae consist of the genera Desmometopa, Madiza, and Leptometopa. This subfamily is characterized by the following apomorphies:

  • distiphallus consists of a membranous tube, with a widened part in the middle and with a sclerotized stripe posteriorly at the base


The Milichiinae consist of the genera Enigmilichia, Eusiphona, Milichia, Milichiella, Pholeomyia, and Ulia. The Milichiinae are characterized by the following apomorphies:

  • middle orbital seta reclinate and anterior orbital seta proclinate
  • vibrissal angle obsolescent and vibrissa above lower margin of eyes
  • eyes enlarged and frons in males narrower than in females
  • R4+5 and M1 convergent at tip
  • distal margin of anal cell meeting anal vein in a sharp angle

Content by Irina Brake, last updated: April 22, 2004
Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith